There is some research suggesting a link between being closeted and being anti-gay. But while the notion feeds many jokes, it also obscures. Abstract. This article gathered evidence of the validity of the Internalized Homophobia Scale (EHI) for Brazilian gays and lesbians. Study 1. 73 countries have laws that make homosexuality illegal. As a result, many men who have sex with men face high levels of homophobia and.
There is some research suggesting a link between being closeted and being anti-gay. But while the notion feeds many jokes, it also obscures. 73 countries have laws that make homosexuality illegal. As a result, many men who have sex with men face high levels of homophobia and. Abstract. This article gathered evidence of the validity of the Internalized Homophobia Scale (EHI) for Brazilian gays and lesbians. Study 1.
Since the study was published, it has been touted in some circles as proof that many homophobic men are in fact secretly gay themselves. 73 countries have laws that make homosexuality illegal. As a result, many men who have sex with men face high levels of homophobia and. Homophobia, culturally produced fear of or prejudice against homosexuals that sometimes manifests itself in legal restrictions or, in extreme cases, bullying or.
Homophobia encompasses a range are negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbiangaybisexual or transgender LGBT. Homophobia is observable in critical and hostile behavior such as discrimination and violence on the basis of sexual orientations that homosexual non-heterosexual.
Negative attitudes toward identifiable LGBT groups have similar yet specific names: lesbophobia is the intersection of homophobia and sexism directed against lesbians, biphobia targets are and bisexual people, and transphobia homophobes transgender and homophobes people and gender variance or gender role nonconformity. The term homophobia and its usage have been criticized by several sources as unwarrantedly pejorative. Although sexual attitudes tracing back to Ancient Greece 8th are 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity ca.
Conceptualizing anti-LGBT prejudice as a social problem worthy of scholarly attention was not new. A article in Time described examples of negative attitudes toward homosexuality as "homophobia", including "a mixture of revulsion and apprehension" which some called homosexual panic. It was a religious fear and it had led to great brutality as fear always does. Inhomophobia was used for the first time in The Times of London to report that the General Synod of the Church of England voted to refuse to condemn homosexuality.
However, when taken literally, homophobia may be a problematic term. Professor David A. Haaga says that contemporary usage includes "a wide range of negative emotions, attitudes and behaviours toward homosexual people," which are characteristics that are not consistent with accepted definitions of phobias, that of "an intense, illogical, or abnormal fear of a specified thing.
Homophobia manifests in different forms, and a number of homophobes types have been postulated, among which are internalized homophobia, social homophobia, emotional homophobia, rationalized homophobia, and others. Inthe American Psychiatric Associationrecognizing the power of the stigma against homosexuality, issued the following statement, reaffirmed homophobes the Board of Trustees, July "Whereas homosexuality per se implies no impairment in judgment, stability, reliability, or general social or vocational capabilities, the American Psychiatric Association APA calls on all international health organizations, psychiatric organizations, and individual psychiatrists in other countries to urge the repeal in their own countries of legislation that penalizes homosexual acts by consenting adults in private.
Further, APA calls on these organizations and individuals to do all that is possible to decrease the stigma related to homosexuality wherever and whenever it may occur.
Many world religions contain anti-homosexual teachings, while other religions have varying degrees of ambivalence, neutrality, or incorporate teachings that regard homosexuals as third gender. Even within some religions which generally discourage homosexuality, there are also people who view homosexuality positively, and some religious denominations bless or conduct same-sex marriages.
Queer theology seeks to provide a counterpoint to religious homophobia. Passages commonly interpreted as condemning homosexuality or same-gender sexual relations are found in both Old and New Testaments of the Bible. Leviticussays "Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind: it homosexual abomination. Christians and Jews who oppose homosexuality often cite such passages; historical context and interpretation is more complicated.
Scholarly debate over the interpretation of these passages has focused on placing them in proper historical context, for instance pointing out that Sodom's sins are historically interpreted as being other than homosexuality, and on the translation of rare or unusual words in the passages in question. In Religion Dispatches magazine, Candace Chellew-Hodge argues that the six or so verses that are often cited to condemn LGBT people are referring instead to "abusive sex".
She states that the Bible has no condemnation for "loving, committed, gay and lesbian relationships" and that Jesus was silent on the subject. Gagnon . The official teaching of the Catholic Church regarding homosexuality is that same-sex behavior should not be expressed. They are contrary to the natural law Under no circumstances can they be approved.
In some cases, the distinction homosexual religious homophobia and state-sponsored homophobia is not clear, a key example being territories under Islamic authority. All major Islamic sects forbid homosexualitywhich is a crime under Sharia Law and treated as such in most Muslim countries. In Afghanistanfor instance, are carried the death penalty under the Taliban. After their fall, homosexuality was reduced from a capital crime to one that is punished with fines and prison sentences.
The legal situation in the United Arab Emirateshowever, are unclear. This research found that of the 80 countries around the world that continue to consider homosexuality illegal:  .
InAl-Muhajirounan international organization seeking the establishment of a global Islamic caliphateissued a fatwa declaring that all members of The Al-Fatiha Foundation which advances the cause of gaylesbianand transgender Muslims were murtaddor apostatesand condemning homosexual to death. Because of the threat and because they come from conservative societies, many members of the foundation's site still prefer to be homosexual so as to protect are identities while they are continuing a tradition of secrecy.
State-sponsored homophobia includes the criminalization and penalization of homosexuality, hate speech from government figures, and other forms of discrimination, violence, persecution of LGBT people. In medieval Europehomosexuality was considered sodomy and it was punishable by death.
Persecutions reached their height during the Medieval Inquisitionswhen the sects of Cathars and Waldensians were accused of fornication and sodomy, alongside accusations of Satanism. Inaccusations of sodomy and homosexuality were homosexual charges leveled during the Trial of the Knights Templar.
Although bisexuality was accepted as normal human behavior in Ancient China,  homophobia became ingrained in the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China due to interactions with the Christian West,  and homosexual behaviour was outlawed in The Soviet Union under Vladimir Lenin decriminalized homosexuality inlong before many other European countries.
The Soviet Communist Party effectively legalized no-fault divorce, abortion and homosexuality, when they abolished all the old Tsarist laws and the initial Homosexual criminal code kept these liberal sexual policies homosexual place. Homosexuals were one of the many groups alongside Jews that were murdered during the Holocaust. Homosexuality is illegal in 74 countries. Homosexuals in the DPRK have never been subject to repression, as in many capitalist regimes around the world.
Robert Mugabethe former president of Zimbabwehas waged a violent campaign against LGBT peoplearguing that homophobes colonisation, Zimbabweans did homosexual engage in homosexual acts. In Poland local towns, cities,   and Voivodeship sejmiks  have declared their respective regions as LGBT-free zone with the encouragement of the ruling Law and Justice party. Internalized homophobia refers to negative stereotypes, beliefs, stigma, and prejudice about homosexuality and LGBT people that a person with same-sex attraction turns inward on themselves, whether or not they identify as LGBT.
This can include extreme repression and denial coupled with forced outward displays of heteronormative behavior for the purpose of appearing or attempting to feel "normal" or "accepted. Some less overt behaviors may include making assumptions about the gender of a person's romantic partner, or about gender roles.
Some studies have shown that people who are homophobic are more likely to have repressed homosexual desires. Researcher Iain R. Williamson, in his paper "Internalized Homophobia and Health Issues Affecting Lesbians and Gay Men" finds the term homophobia to be "highly problematic" but for reasons of continuity and consistency with the majority of other publications on the issue retains its use rather than using more accurate but obscure terminology.
It can also homosexual to many stereotypes beyond sexuality and gender roles. Internalized homophobia can cause discomfort with and disapproval of one's own sexual orientation. Ego-dystonic sexual orientation or egodystonic homophobia, for instance, is a condition characterized by having a sexual orientation or an attraction that is at odds with one's idealized self-imagecausing anxiety and a desire to change one's orientation or become more comfortable with one's sexual orientation.
Such a situation may cause extreme repression of homosexual desires. This discordance can cause clinical depressionand a higher rate of suicide among LGBT youth up to 30 percent of non-heterosexual youth attempt suicide has been attributed to this phenomenon.
Critics of the scales note that they presume a discomfort with non-heterosexuality which in itself enforces heternormativity. The fear of being identified as gay can be considered as a form of social homophobia. Theorists including Calvin Thomas and Judith Butler have suggested that homophobia can be rooted in an individual's fear of being identified as gay. Homophobia in men is correlated with insecurity about masculinity. These theorists have argued that a person who expresses homophobic thoughts and feelings does so not only to communicate their beliefs about the class of gay people, but also to distance themselves from are class and its social status.
Thus, by distancing themselves from gay people, they are reaffirming their role as a heterosexual in a heteronormative culture, thereby attempting to prevent themselves from being labeled and treated as a gay person. This interpretation alludes to the idea that a person may posit violent opposition to "the Other" as a means of establishing their own identity as part of are majority and thus gaining social validation.
Nancy J. Chodorow states that homophobia can be viewed as a method of protection of male masculinity. Various psychoanalytic theories explain homophobia as a threat to an individual's own same-sex are, whether those impulses are imminent or merely hypothetical.
This threat causes repression, denial or reaction formation. Disapproval of homosexuality and of gay people is not evenly distributed throughout society, but is more or less pronounced according to age, ethnicity, geographic location, race, sex, social classeducation, partisan identification and religious status.
The anxiety of heterosexual individuals particularly adolescents whose construction of heterosexual masculinity is based in part on not being seen as gay that others may identify them as gay   has also been identified by Michael Kimmel as an example of homophobia.
In some cases, the works of authors who merely have the word "Gay" in their name Gay TalesePeter Gay or works about things also contain the name Enola Gay have been destroyed because of a perceived pro-homosexual bias.
In the United States, attitudes about people who are homosexual may are on the basis of partisan identification. Republicans are far more likely than Democrats to have negative attitudes about people who are gay and lesbian, according to surveys conducted by the National Election Studies from through This disparity is shown in the graph on the right, which is from a book published homophobes by Joseph Fried.
The tendency of Republicans to view gay and lesbian people negatively could be based on homophobia, religious beliefs, or conservatism with respect to the traditional family.
Homophobia also varies by region; statistics show that homophobes Southern United States has more homosexual of are prejudice than any other region in the US. In a address, author, activist, and civil rights leader Coretta Scott King stated that "Homophobia is like racism and anti-Semitism and other forms of bigotry in that it seeks to dehumanize a large group of people, to homophobes their humanity, their dignity and personhood.
There are at least two studies which indicate that homophobia may have a negative economic impact for the countries where it is widespread. As soon asan editorial from the New York Times related the politics of don't ask, don't tell in the US Army with the lack of translators from Arabicand with the delay in the translation of Arabic documents, calculated to be abouthours at the time. Sincewith the introduction of the new policy, about 20 Arabic translators had been expelled from the Army, specifically during the years the US was involved in wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Lee Badgett, an economist at the University of Massachusetts Amherstpresented in March in a meeting of the World Bank the results of a study about the economical impact of homophobia in India.
Only in health expenses, caused by depression, suicide, and HIV treatment, India would have spent additional 23, million dollars due to homophobia. On top, there would be costs caused by violence, workplace loss, rejection of the family, and bullying at school, that would result in a homophobes education level, lower productivity, lower wages, worse health, and a lower life expectancy homophobes the LGBT population.
Taking into account that in homosexuality is still illegal in 36 of the 54 African countries, the money loss due to homophobia in the continent could amount to hundreds of millions of dollars every year. Another study regarding socioecological measurement of homophobia and its public health impact for countries was conducted in Economical loss in Asia was Economical cost in East Asia and Middle Asia was Economical cost in Middle East and North Africa was Most international human rights organizations, such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty Homophobescondemn laws that make homosexual relations between consenting adults a crime.
Inthe Roman Catholic Church issued a statement which "urges States to do away with criminal penalties against [homosexual persons]. To combat homophobia, the LGBT community uses events such as gay pride parades and political activism See gay pride. The first permanent crossings have been put on roads in Lambeth.
Others were painted in Royal Borough of Greenwich. One form of organized resistance to homophobia is the International Day Against Homophobia or IDAHO first celebrated May 17, in related activities in more than 40 countries.
In addition to public expression, legislation has been designed, controversially, to oppose homophobia, as in hate speechhate crimeand laws against discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. Successful preventative strategies against homophobic prejudice and bullying in schools have included teaching pupils about historical figures who were gay, or who suffered discrimination because of their sexuality.
Some argue that anti-LGBT prejudice is immoral and goes above and beyond the effects on that class of people.
Some of these alternatives show more semantic transparency while others do not include - phobia :. People and groups have objected to the use of the term homophobia. Use of homophobia , homophobic , and homophobe has been criticized as pejorative against LGBT rights opponents. Behavioral scientists William O'Donohue and Christine Caselles stated in that "as [ homophobia ] is usually used, [it] makes an illegitimately pejorative evaluation of certain open and debatable value positions, much like the former disease construct of homosexuality" itself, arguing that the term may be used as an ad hominem argument against those who advocate values or positions of which the user does not approve.
In the Associated Press Stylebook was revised to advise against using non-clinical words with the suffix -phobia, including homophobia, in "political and social contexts. The term heterophobia is sometimes used to describe reverse discrimination or negative attitudes towards heterosexual people and opposite-sex relationships. The term heterophobia is confusing for some people for several reasons. On the one hand, some look at it as just another of the many me-too social constructions that have arisen in the pseudoscience of victimology in recent decades.
Others look at the parallelism between heterophobia and homophobia, and suggest that the former trivializes the latter For others, it is merely a curiosity or parallel-construction word game.
But for others still, it is part of both the recognition and politicization of heterosexuals' cultural interests in contrast to those of gays—particularly where those interests are perceived to clash. Stephen M. White and Louis R. Franzini introduced the related term heteronegativism to refer to the considerable range of negative feelings that some gay individuals may hold and express toward heterosexuals. This term is preferred to heterophobia because it does not imply extreme or irrational fear.
Category:LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Chumbawamba song, see Homophobia song. For the short film, see Homophobia film. Negative attitudes and discrimination toward homosexuality and LGBT people. General forms. Related topics. Sexual orientation. Homosexuality Bisexuality pansexuality polysexuality Asexuality gray asexuality Demographics Biology Environment.
Social attitudes. Prejudice , violence. Academic fields and discourse. Queer studies Lesbian feminism Queer theory Transfeminism Lavender linguistics. Main article: Religion and homosexuality. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main articles: Christianity and homosexuality and The Bible and homosexuality. Main article: Homosexuality and Islam. Worldwide laws regarding same-sex intercourse and state of expression and association. Rings indicate areas where local judges have granted or denied marriages or imposed the death penalty in a jurisdiction where that is not otherwise the law or areas with a case-by-case application.
See also: History of homosexual people in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust. Further information: Societal attitudes toward homosexuality. LGBT portal. Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice. Retrieved December 27, Because of the complicated interplay among gender identity, gender roles, and sexual identity, transgender people are often assumed to be lesbian or gay See Overview: Sexism, Heterosexism, and Transgender Oppression.
Because transgender identity challenges a binary conception of sexuality and gender, educators must clarify their own understanding of these concepts. Facilitators must be able to help participants understand the connections among sexism, heterosexism, and transgender oppression and the ways in which gender roles are maintained, in part, through homophobia.
Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence. SAGE Publications. In a culture of homophobia an irrational fear of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender [GLBT] people , GLBT people often face a heightened risk of violence specific to their sexual identities. Women's Gynecologic Health. Homophobia is an individual's irrational fear or hate of homosexual people. This may include bisexual or transgender persons, but sometimes the more distinct terms of biphobia or transphobia, respectively, are used.
Retrieved Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. June Fear or hatred of homosexuals and homosexuality. Mark McCormack 23 May The Declining Significance of Homophobia. Retrieved 31 July Retrieved 12 June Rutgers University Press. Transgender people subjected to violence, in a range of cultural contexts, frequently report that transphobic violence is expressed in homophobic terms.
The tendency to translate violence against a trans person to homophobia reflects the role of gender in attribution of homosexuality as well as the fact that hostility connected to homosexuality is often associated with the perpetrators' prejudices about particular gender practices and their visibility. FBI [Internet]. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment.
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The Advocate. Retrieved December 31, Homan, and organization for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender Iranians in exile, estimates that more than 4, gay Iranians have been executed in the country since the Islamic revolution of The Observer. Saudi executions are not systematically reported, and officials deny that the death penalty is applied for same-sex activity alone. Archived from the original PDF on December 19, Retrieved October 15, The Continuum complete international encyclopedia of sexuality.
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Retrieved 26 August The New York Times. Retrieved 10 December The World Bank. The Atlantic. European Journal of Public Health. Retrieved 20 August Pan American Health Organization. The Guardian. Retrieved 9 November Beacon Press. Journal of Homosexuality. Christianity, social tolerance, and homosexuality: Gay people in Western Europe from the beginning of the Christian era to the fourteenth century.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Heterosexism: An Ethical Challenge. State University of New York Press. J Interpers Violence. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. Encyclopedia of Diversity in Education. Retrieved 17 December Lexington Books. Some modifications and adaptations were handled by researchers for the purpose of improving the instrument.
The main modification was the inclusion of both male and female genders, simultaneously, in the items of the scales, in order to consider both gays and lesbians. Sociodemographic questionnaire : This questionnaire was composed of 24 questions specific to the objectives of this study. It This questionnaire sought to characterize sociodemographically the participants age, sex, schooling, socioeconomic level, occupation, cohabitation, number of children, among others.
The first Portuguese author Costa et al. For data collection, a website was developed, using Google Docs, to host the sociodemographic questionnaire and the Internalized Homophobia Scale. Protocols were available for 11 months for completion.
A non-response to a question was allowed and participants could return to correct the response given to the questionnaire item before finalizing the submission. Participants were informed about the bioethical principles, and also about the objectives and procedures of the study when invited to participate voluntarily in the research, having signed the Terms of Free and Informed Consent form - TFIC.
When an item presented factorial loads in one or more components, it was chosen to be retained in the component with the highest saturation or to eliminate it when the difference between the factor loads were less than 0. As the other items did not show large deviations in their distribution indicating problems of psychometric sensitivity, the PCA was followed with the other 26 items.
When the first PCA was carried out, the number of components to be extracted was not determined, with 8 components having their own values greater than 1. However, since these components did not have good interpretability, the parallel analysis of Horn was followed, reaching four components with their own values above those obtained randomly. A new PCA was then established, fixing the extraction of four components, following the indication of the parallel analysis.
With In this factorial solution, three more items were excluded because they saturated simultaneously into two components, being ambiguous, and still having a factorial load below 0.
Finally, the result revealed a solution of three components, composed of 23 items and with total explained variance of Table 1 presents the items, factor loads and indices of internal consistency.
After gathering the evidence of validity of the Internalized Homophobia scale from a sample of Brazilian LGB participants, the instrument consisted of 23 items. As in the study by Pereira et al. It should be noted, however, that some items 5, 12 and 16 that composed the dimensions, as well as the denomination given to the components of this study and the previous studies of the IHS varied considerably from the original study and the studies carried out in Portugal, which reveals a lack of consensual indications about the items and dimensions to be interpreted.
It is possible that the differences in the dimensionality of the construct can be explained by the lack of clarity of some items. Future studies should understand the specific items that include both dimensions in the different contexts Brazilian, North American and Portuguese and evaluate what the item actually measures. In the present factorial solution, therefore, the items in relation to public identification, social discomfort and moral and religious acceptance proposed by Ross and Rosser have merged into a single component.
What seems interpretable is that the LG person who does not morally accept homosexuality may have difficulties to publicly declare their homosexual sexual orientation, generating some social discomfort. In relation to the 4 items excluded from the instrument items 4, 7, 9 and 14 , the loss did not cause difficulties related to the construct objective, keeping the explained variance of In fact, the excluded items were problematic and threatened the evidence of validity of the instrument.
However, a second study was conducted using a different sample with the objective of testing the replicability of the factorial solution presented here.
Study 2 collected additional evidence of validity of the IHS from a new sample. Through the Confirmatory Factorial Analysis CFA , we attempted to replicate the tri-factorial solution of the previous study and to compare it with alternative factorial models.
The reliability coefficients of the instrument were also calculated. The participants were a total of self-declared lesbians Most of the participants were employed In addition, most of the people in the sample cohabit with their partners, with an average of That is, the version used in this analysis had 23 items.
Sociodemographic questionnaire : The same questionnaire previously described in Study 1 was used. The instrument was applied face to face, individually and on paper, in the Brazilian cities of Fortaleza, Aracaju and Uberaba. Participants were recruited and invited to participate in the survey through social networks and by contact with professional colleagues with the aim to gain access.
When making contact with the participants, the snowball method was used, to identify other potential collaborators. Data collection took place from March to February Following the psychometric sensitivity criteria, items with absolute asymmetry and kurtosis values of less than 3 and 7, respectively Kline, were considered. The indices of the initial general model, with 23 items and three correlated factors Model 1 were tested with alternative models: Model 2 - Tri-factorial, consisting of 19 items and two pairs of correlated errors; Model 3 - Bi-factorial 19 items and five pairs of correlated errors.
The correlation between the errors was established according to the modification index MI. See the description of items in Table 1. The adjustment indices for the three models tested are presented in Table 2. This model revealed a satisfactory adjustment index, especially after the exclusion of four items with factor loads less than 0. Models 2 and 3 presented very close adjustment indices. Figure 1 shows the factorial structure of this model.
It is noteworthy that the analysis of the present study confirm, but also diverge from, previous studies conducted in the USA and Portugal. However, it corroborates the hypothesis of a two-factor solution demonstrated by Pereira and Leal According to the literature, non-acceptance of sexual orientation, social discomfort and challenges in public identification may stimulate internal feelings of discomfort regarding sexual orientation, raising levels of internalized homophobia e.
In regard to the exclusion of the four items due to low saturations items 5, 6, 16 and 18 , Szymanski et al. It should be noted, however, that the removal of these items did not compromise the scale structure or the relationship between concept, construct and measure.
On the contrary, the instrument composed of 19 items proved to be more prudent and the exclusion of items significantly improved the quality of the overall adjustment of the scale.
Variation in scale items can also be improved by allowing greater variability in response options. Another issue that arises is the need to investigate groups with a high awareness of stigma and engaged in the struggle for social rights. Even though the literature suggests that the consciousness of social oppression may lead LG people to expect rejection and social disapproval, with possible impairment in their physical and psychological health Strizzi et al.
Remaining on the question of the perception of social oppression, theorists advocate the idea that IH and the perception of social oppression are different constructs and should be measured separately e. After these analyses, the two-factor model, composed of 19 items, proved to be the most appropriate solution to measure internalized homophobia.
In spite of significant advances and discoveries, some limits were necessary in this study and should to be considered: firstly, the sample was predominantly composed of middle-class, educated people, recruited in urban areas and who maintained a stable marital relationship; which prevents us from making generalizations about gays and lesbians on the whole. In addition, this sample profile may presumably indicate that such persons would have lower internalized homophobia levels, limiting the variation in scoring of items on the scale, which may affect the accuracy of the estimated correlations with their statistical significance.
Future studies should use other recruitment methods to target population segments not considered here. Another question concerns the age range of this sample. It is recognized that the testing of the instrument on adolescents and the elderly could lead to a different structuring, since the level of internalized homophobia may be higher in young people still living through a phase of confirmation of sexual identity, or even for older LGB people who have lived through a time of great social oppression in relation to homophobia.
Despite these limitations, there are some strengths in the present study that should be emphasized. First, the recruitment of samples was performed in different regions of Brazil, increasing its representativeness. In addition, as far as we know, this study is the first to seek evidence of validity of the Internalized Homophobia Scale in Brazil. This research also expands the psychometric qualities of the IHS, gathering evidence of validity based on the internal structure, through exploratory and confirmatory analysis strategies to define grouping of test items.
In addition, the evaluation of the psychometric qualities of the IHS in Brazil can be an important strategy to assist social scientists and health professionals in the identification and evaluation of the risks that are involved in the life and psychosocial development of sexual minorities, as well as to point out proposals for prevention and therapeutic intervention.
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